2.2 TII + MP = 300/300 by Jerry Mallicoat, Development Engineer - Mopar Performance
Paper presented at SDAC-4 to Shelby Dodge Club by Jerry Mallicoat- Indianapolis, Indiana 6/28/94
Gary's note: The Super 60 package is truly a RACE ONLY package and was developed as such- It requires race gas on the high boost setting, the stock intercooler is better at shedding heat at low speed (up to 50 mph), the larger throttle body tends to make throttle response soft (as does the larger exhaust turbine), the S-60 cams are notorious for wearing out and the computer has no O2 feedback. As a RACE PACKAGE these really are not issues if you have a race car.... People have used the S-60 package on the street with varying levels of success, you mileage may vary...
2.2 TII + MP = 300/300. It's a safe bet you won't find this equation in any engineering textbook, but to Chrysler 4 cylinder aficionados it may become their battle cry. Translated , it asks if a production 2.2 Turbo II engine can be modified with off the shelf Mopar Performance parts to develop an honest 300 Horsepower and 300 Ft./Lbs. of Torque. Code name for these parts is Super 60. Included are carefully coordinated pieces that compliment each other for substantial power gains without overly reducing the durability of the basic parts.
The Super 60 program did not happen overnight, and an overview of how these things occur is important. To begin with, Turbo II engines were produced in Chrysler production vehicles from 1987 through 1989. The most common application was in Dodge Daytonas, but some Lebanon's were also produced with this package. A variation of this engine was also available in the 1986 Shelby GLHS, the 1987 Shelby Charger, the 1987 Shelby Lancer and the 1987 Shelby CSX. Chrysler production Turbo II engines were rated at 175 H.P. and 200 Ft./Lbs of Torque, while the Shelby versions were rated at 175/175. The decrease in Torque was due to the fact that the Shelby GLHS and Charger vehicles used the A 525 transmission which was not as strong as the Daytona Getrag gearbox.
Also in 1987, a group of Chrysler engineers known as TEAM SHELBY put together a unique Daytona to race in GTU. Using a 2.0 liter version of the Turbo II that developed 403 horsepower (Yes that is correct) the TEAM SHELBY #53 car was the fastest thing on the track. As far as durability the engine was completely reliable. In fact, last year it was dusted off (literally) and installed in Bruce Hertel's 1992 Le Baron to run at the Bonneville Salt Flats and proceeded to establish a class record of 189 M.P.H. with a one-way top speed of 195.
Earlier this year another group of Chrysler engineers and technicians including yours truly, Dick Winkles, Stu Davis, Cooper Smith and Dave Zelkowski put together our collective ideas for a maximum performance street type 2.2 engine based on TEAM SHELBY'S experience. It was felt that there was a lot of bad information and parts currently in use by the four cylinder clan and it was time to set the record straight. Our new parts list included the turbocharger, high output intercooler, intake manifold and throttle body, modified cylinder head and camshaft, map sensor, injectors, computer and fuel pump. Anyone attempting to duplicate our efforts should obtain a copy of Mopar Performance's 2.2 Engine Book #P4452792 first. This is the "Bible" when it comes to building these engines.
The basic building block for this project was the stock production Turbo II short block assembly that we pirated from Dave Zelkowski's "Omni From Hell". Turbo II engines differ from Turbo I's in that they use a forged crank instead of a cast one, and the pistons and rods are stronger. To build an engine similar to ours, use 1985-1989 components. Later model "common block 2.2/2.5" engines require different parts. It is recommended that if you don't have a Turbo II engine to start with , you update it with Mopar Performance parts. SHELBY OWNERS TAKE NOTE: Your vehicles were modified Turbo I engines. They DO NOT have the forged crank, or other T-II parts. Part Number P4529109 is for the forged crank, P4452749 is for the heavy duty rods, and P4452752 is for the pistons. The use of production main bearings is O.K., but the MP rod bearing P4120966 is highly recommended. It it also recommended that the block be "0" Ringed to help seal the combustion pressures. See MP's 2.2 Engine Book for details. With the "0" Ringed block you will need to use MP head gasket P4452008. The block and head also need to be cross-drilled like the production Turbo II engines were.
Since all engines are air pumps, our first task was to get more air into and out of the engine. Here is where a lot of owners of turbocharged engines make mistakes. They think that all they have to do is increase the boost and they can make more power. This is true , but only to a point. When the engine's air requirements exceed what the turbo can deliver efficiently, bad things start to happen. Increasing the boost too high raises the speed of the compressor until it becomes inefficient. This raises compressor temperatures out of sight. This creates detonation and, sad to say, blown up engines. On the turbine side of the turbo, inefficiencies also come into play as backpressures increase faster than boost and exhaust temperatures go ballistic, resulting in engine and turbo damage. What's required is to have a turbocharger that has been matched to the power output. Just bolting on a "bigger" turbo won't work as low speed response will suffer and peak boost may never be reached.
The Super 60 turbo features a larger volume turbine housing with an AIR ratio of .63 compared to the production AIR .48. and was required to keep the backpressure manageable. On the compressor side, a new recontoured compressor wheel and housing were developed to provide increased airflow without overspeeding the wheel and thereby keep the compressor temperatures within limits.
The new intercooler uses specs developed for the Indy 500 Pace Car a few years ago. With less secondary fins per inch, fifteen instead of twenty-two, there is less pressure drop across the core under higher boost conditions. A secondary benefit is that the turbine backpressures are also reduced correspondingly.
The proper intake manifold to use is either the 1987 production Turbo II unit or Mopar Performance's P4529100. This is a two-piece design that is significantly better than the 1988-89 one piece unit. A larger 52mm throttle body from a mini- van or later model 3.3 engine replaces the original 48mm part. Before installation , the intake manifold needs to be ported to match the upper and lower halves of the manifold., as well as where the manifold meets the throttle body and cylinder head.
The cylinder head requirements can be easily solved by selecting the Mopar Performance Race Ported Head directly from the MP catalog. Part Number P4529353. For those that do their own cylinder head work start out with MP's "G" cylinder head casting P4349065, and use P4349125 and P4349126 Oversize seats in conjunction with P4529442 44mm intake valve and P4529443 36.8mm exhaust valve. Race valve springs P4286540 will also be required. Additional parts such as valve stem locks, retainers, seals and shims are all available from the Mopar Performance Parts Catalog. Before final assembly, the head needs to be milled to obtain a combustion chamber volume of 50 cc's.
Camshaft selection proved to be the most difficult item to develop. The stock production 1985 turbo cam installed at 110 degrees intake centerline has always been a very good performer. Reverting to the TEAM SHELBY data it was discovered that their engine preferred a cam with an increased lift rate. Many hours of dyno runs were conducted before we found a cam we all liked. The Super 60 cam that was selected has more duration than the production cam , but is ground with a wider lobe center to reduce valve overlap. Plus it has a lift of .499, some seventy thousandths more than stock. This cam uses flat followers not roller followers. These are also available from MP under Part Number P4349147. MP High Performance Lash Adjusters P4529894 are also recommended, especially for road racing or slalom competitions as the production lifters lose adjustment if the oil tends to foam. Installed centerline stays the same at 110 degrees.
The fuel injectors, three-atmosphere map sensor and the new computer are components which are closely interrelated. In other words, they have to be used together. Initially, high flow injectors and the map sensor were included with the Super 60 Turbo # P4529980. However, latest dyno tests showed that the injectors, #P4529495 were marginal in flow at high boost pressures. Therefore a new set of injectors ,#P5249452, which have a static flow of 53 lbs/hr ~ 55 lbs. fuel pressure had to be developed. This is 40% more flow than the original Turbo II injectors. These injectors will be sold individually, and are currently included with the Super 60 Turbo #P4529980.
The production two-atmosphere MAP Sensor can only monitor boost pressures up to 15 lbs. approximately. After that it goes into default. Some enthusiasts have tried to "trick" the sensor by installing an air bleed in the sensor line. NOT A SMART THING TO DO!!! The fuel curves and boost curves will not match and the engine will eventually run lean, resulting in burned pistons and valves, blown head gaskets and possibly a "torched" cylinder head. For these reasons a new three-atmosphere MAP Sensor was developed for this package to handle the higher boost pressures yet still maintain low speed, non-boost driving quality.
Completing this trilogy of parts is a new SMEC (Single Module Engine Controller) based on 1988/1989 electronics. This level of electronics was necessary to obtain the degree of wastegate control that was required. For 1986/87 Shelby vehicles and 1987 Chrysler vehicles this will require a change in the main wiring harness. The later model harness can be modified to the earlier vehicles, but requires someone thoroughly familiar with vehicle electronics. Mopar Performance will be making these available, but they are not ready yet. This new SMEC Controller has one feature that has never been available before. It has been set up with dual calibrations - one for pump type premium fuel with moderate boost, (14 P.S.I.) and one for race fuel with high (18 P.S.I.) boost and an aggressive spark curve. A simple flip of a switch changes from one level to the other. The switch needs to be connected from pin#30 of the SMEC to engine ground for 14 P.S.I.
One item that created a problem we hadn't counted on was the production fuel pump. Over the years Chrysler has used different vendors who supplied both in tank and externally mounted pumps. In the course of our dyno work it was discovered that we were running out of fuel volume. The pressure was adequate but the gallons per hour were short especially at the high boost levels The immediate solution was to adapt a pump from a DODGE VIPER as it has the specs to do the job. Mopar Performance will offer this pump under Part # P5249511, and it will be available July 1994. In the interim, several O.E. or aftermarket pumps are available providing they will flow between 43-57 gallons/hour @ 3 Bar pressure.
Remember our equation at the beginning? Did we accomplish what we set out to do? You bet!!! How does 305 H.P. @ 5900 R.P.M and 314 FT./LBS. of Torque @ 4500 R.P.M. sound. In fact, this engine will make more than 220 FT./LBS. Torque from 2800 to 6300 RPM. We surpassed the production 175 H.P. once we reached 3300 R.P.M. What about on track performance? We took the car to Waterford Raceway when the Shelby Dodge convention was in town this summer. Dave found that his driving style needed modification as proceeded to spin the left front tire off the rim. Not once, but three times!!! And this was at the lower boost setting. Quarter mile times are also mind boggling as the timers registered numbers of 12.56 E.T. @109 M.P.H. on a track not noted for good traction.